Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia. It is situated between latitudes 30.33 and 35.41 and longitudes 32.23 and 34.55. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) covers an area of 3,355 square kilometres. Its neighbouring countries are Turkey, 65kms to the north; Syria, 112kms to the east; Israel, 267kms to the east; Egypt, 418kms to the south; Greece, 965kms to the west.
The capital city of the TRNC is Lefkoşa. The other districts are Gazimağusa, Girne, Güzelyurt, Yeni İskele and Lefke. The climate is typically Mediterranean with long dry summers and short rainy winters. The average annual temperature is 19°C (66ºF). The temperature in summer changes between 37°C and 40°C (105 ºF). The weather in winter is very mild. The average annual rainfall is 500mm in the island.
The most important factor in the formation of the natural wealth of Cyprus is undoubtedly the Mediterranean climate. A rich Mediterranean flora can be seen by the influence of the Mediterranean climate. The most common tree species are pine, cypress, oak and eucalyptus grown on the island later. Some citrus fruits such as orange, bergamot, lemon, mandarin, and grapefruit are grown as well as watermelons, there are some vegetables grown, and olive and carob trees. The vegetation is ideal for livestock. Pinaceae, citrus fruits, the olive family as well as macquis groves, deciduous trees, shrubs and different flower species constitute the general vegetation of Northern Cyprus. Different types of orchids are amongst the unique plants of Cyprus. It is possible to see different types of animals which migrate to cross continents or are living in Cyprus. The island is known for the laying of eggs and the accommodation centre of some bird species between Africa and Eastern Europe due to its geographical position. 7 out of 350 bird species are endemic in the island. On the other hand, there are 26 different kinds of reptiles and amphibians living in the island.
The most important beaches of the TRNC host the endangered caretta caretta and chelonian mydas turtles in the Mediterranean during certain months of the year.
There are also 250 wild donkeys living freely around the Karpaz National Park.