Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia. It is situated between latitudes 30.33 and 35.41 and longitudes 32.23 and 34.55. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) covers an area of 3,242 square kilometres. Its neighbouring countries are Turkey, 70kms to the North; Syria, 102kms to the East; Lebanon, 165kms to the east, Israel, 233kms to the southeast; Egypt, 347kms to the south and Greek Cypriot Administration.
The population is 294,396 people according to the population and housing census of 2011.
The capital city of the TRNC is Lefkoşa. The other districts are Gazimağusa, Girne, Güzelyurt, Yeni İskele and Lefke. The climate is typically Mediterranean with hot/dry summers and warmed rainy winters. The average highest annual temperature is 25.6°C. The average lowest annual temperature is 13.9°C. The most important factor in the formation of the natural wealth of Cyprus is undoubtedly the Mediterranean climate. A rich Mediterranean flora can be seen by the influence of the Mediterranean climate. The most common tree species are Cypress and Juniper. Some citrus fruits such as orange, bergamot, lemon, mandarin, and grapefruit are grown as well as watermelons, there are some vegetables grown, and olive and carob trees. The vegetation is ideal for livestock.
Pinaceae, citrus fruits, the olive family as well as macquis, steppes and different flower species constitute the general vegetation of Northern Cyprus. Different types of orchids are amongst the unique plants of the TRNC.
It is possible to see different types of animals which migrate to cross continents or are living in the TRNC. The island is known for the laying of eggs and the accommodation centre of some bird species between Africa and Eastern Europe due to its geographical position. 7 out of 350 bird species are endemic in the island. On the other hand, there are 26 different kinds of reptiles and amphibians living in the island.
The beaches of the TRNC host the endangered caretta caretta and chelonian mydas turtles in the Mediterranean during certain months of the year.
There are also wild donkeys living freely around the Karpaz National Park.